Scheepers, C., Botha, M., & Biggs, A. (in press.) Legislative, regulatory and corporate governance influencers of a hostile acquisition transaction. South African Journal of Business Management.
Sutherland, M., & Scheepers, C. (in press). The process of executives unlearning their attachments in order to facilitate change. South African Journal of Labour Relations.
George, R., Chiba, M., & Scheepers, C. (2017). An investigation into the effect of leadership style on stress-related-presenteeism in South African knowledge workers. South African Journal of Human Resources Management, 15, 1-13..
Orientation: Leadership styles influence
knowledge workers’ job-stress-related presenteeism (JSRP) and,
ultimately, organisational performance. Knowledge workers generally work
under strict deadlines in fast-paced, stressful environments, and
require organisational support.
The objective of this study was to examine empirically the effect of
three leadership styles, namely transformational, transactional and
laissez-faire, on job-relatedstress presenteeism in knowledge workers
across a number of industries in South Africa.
Motivation for the study:
Absenteeism has been the subject of much investigation but more
research is required into the antecedents and consequences of
presenteeism, the phenomenon of employees being physically present at
work, but not fully functional and therefore unproductive. Illness as an
antecedent to presenteeism has been studied, but limited attention has
been given to presenteeism caused by stress. There are very few studies
that investigate leadership styles as antecedents for JSRP and this
study therefore sets out to provide quantitative evidence of this
Research design, approach and method:
The researchers used a cross-sectional quantitative approach within the
positivism research philosophy. Two questionnaires were administered:
the multifactor leadership questionnaire form 6S and the
job-related-stress presenteeism questionnaire. Descriptive statistics
and Pearson’s product-moment correlation were used to answer the
research questions. The participants (N = 242) were knowledge
workers, representing 12 widely categorised industries. The researchers
analysed job role descriptions to ensure the respondents were all
Transformational leadership has a higher negative correlation with JSRP
than does transactional leadership, whereas laissez-faire leadership has
no significant relationship with job stress or JSRP.
The research provides a compelling case for investment into
transformational and transactional leadership development by showing the
preventative effect that transformational leadership and, to a lesser
degree, transactional leadership, has on stress-associated presenteeism.
lowers organisational performance even more than absenteeism does, and
exists at huge cost to employees’ quality of work-life. This empirical
study, the first to use valid, reliable questionnaires to investigate
the relationship between transformational, transactional and
laissez-faire leadership on the one hand, and JSRP on the other,
suggests that transformational leadership development should be
Scheepers, C., & Reimers, C. (2016). Exploring the role of non-financial risk management in strategy processes of large retail banks. South African Journal of Business Management, 47(3), 1-12.
The consideration of risk in the banking industry generally involves
investigation into credit and financial risks. However, the occurrence
of high-profile, non-financial risk events (such as system downtime and
fraud) have resulted in negative financial and reputational implications
for banks globally. These events have provided an opportunity for
stakeholders to reflect on the consideration of non-financial risk.
Therefore, the objective of this research was to understand the
incorporation of non-financial risk management into the strategy process
at retail banks, including the related benefits and challenges and the
initiatives that have (and require to be) undertaken. To this end, a
qualitative research approach was conducted, using an exploratory
design. Twelve banking subject matter experts were interviewed to
explore their unique insights and experiences into the research problem.
The research identified several challenges related to the consideration
of operational and business risk. Key findings emerged including: the
need for increased awareness of the concepts, the need to balance risk
management and business development, and the dangers of over-confidence
in existing internal processes.
Van Eeden, A., Sutherland, M., & Scheepers, C. (2016). An exploration of the perceived relationship between the level of power of stakeholder groups and their resistance to organisational change. South African Journal of Labour Relations, 40(2), 99-117.
The success of organisational change processes can be significantly enhanced
by effectively addressing resistance to change among a range of stakeholders as
well as the impact of their resistance. There is, however, limited research on the
relationship between stakeholders’ level of power and their propensity to resist
change in a certain manner. This study therefore explored the interrelationships
between stakeholders’ perceived level of power and their type of resistance, via
face-to-face, in-depth interviews with fifteen professional change agents from
three sample groups comprising change consultants, internal human resource
managers and internal senior managers, all of whom had led change
interventions. The findings revealed surprising trends in that certain stakeholder
groups showed resistance more actively and overtly than others in direct
proportion to their levels of power. These results culminated in a conceptual
framework on stakeholders, power and resistance. This article highlights
important implications for managers and change practitioners.
Scheepers, C. B., & Elstob, S. L. (2016). Beneficiary contact moderates relationship between authentic leadership and engagement. South African Journal of Human Resources Management, 14(1), a758. doi: dx.doi. org/10.4102/sajhrm. v14i1.758
Orientation: Beneficiary contact moderates the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement.
Research purpose: The
objective of this study was to examine the moderating effect of the
breadth, depth and frequency of employee interaction with the
beneficiaries of their work on the positive impact of authentic
leadership on work engagement.
Motivation for the study: Investigating
the boundary conditions of the relationship between leaders and
followers is vital to enhance the positive effect of leadership.
Authentic leadership has not previously been examined with respect to
beneficiary contact as a specific situational factor. The researchers
therefore set out to ascertain whether beneficiary contact has a
strengthening or weakening effect on the impact of authentic leadership
on work engagement.
Research design, approach and method:
The researchers administered the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire
(ALQ), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) and Grant’s scale on
Main findings: The findings
showed that beneficiary contact had a weakening effect on the positive
relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement.
Practical/managerial implications: Ideally,
organisations create environments conducive to work engagement in which
leadership plays an important role. This study found that one factor in
the work environment, namely beneficiary contact, might have an adverse
effect on the positive relationship that authentic leadership has on
work engagement. Leaders should therefore take organisational contextual
realities into account, such as regular, intense interaction of
employees with the beneficiaries of their work. This situation could
create strain for individual employees, requiring additional
Organisations need to recognise the impact of beneficiary contact on the
relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. The
researchers propose further studies on the influence of contextual
variables on the relationship between leaders and followers.
Rautenbach, R., Sutherland, M., & Scheepers, C. B. (2015). The process by which executives unlearn their attachments in order to facilitate change. South African Journal of Labour Relations, 39(2),145-164.
Unlearning an attachment has become a critical change competence for
executives. Although attachment behaviour in the workplace is ubiquitous, there is
a scarcity of empirical research on the processes executives follow in order to
release their dysfunctional attachments to systems, routines, ideas, divisions and
certain members of staff. By unlearning attachments, executives can embrace
new concepts, methods and processes and thereby enable their organisations to
be more competitive. This qualitative research investigated executives’
experiences of unlearning an attachment, through the pre-unlearning, unlearning
and post-unlearning phases. A de jure model was formulated from concepts that
emerged during the literature review and this model was the basis of in-depth
interviews with 10 change experts and 10 executives who had unlearned
attachments. The executives and change experts shared real-life experiences
during each of the unlearning phases. The findings informed a de facto model of
the experiences of executives unlearning their attachments. This process model
makes a theoretical contribution by depicting the major types of attachments,
influences on, processes of, actions required by and outcome of the executives’
unlearning. The model should contribute to change practitioners’ facilitation of
executives’ unlearning processes and executives’ insights into their own
Scheepers, C. B., & Shuping, J. G. (2011). The effect of human resource practices on psychological contracts at an iron ore mining company in South Africa: Original research. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(1), 139-157.
Orientation: Human resource practices influence
the psychological contract between employee and employer and,
ultimately, organisational performance.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of human resource
practices on the types of psychological contracts in an iron ore
mining company in South Africa empirically.
Motivation for the study:
Although there have been a number of conceptual studies on the effect
of human resource practices on psychological contracts, there has been
no effort to synthesise the links between these contracts and various
human resource practices systematically. This study endeavoured to
provide quantitative evidence to verify or refute conceptual studies on
this relationship. Its findings could inform human resource strategies
and, ultimately, the prioritisation of human resource practices to
improve the cost-effective allocation of resources.
Research design, approach and method:
The researchers administered two questionnaires. These were Rousseau’s
Psychological Contract Inventory (2000) and the Human Resource
Practices Scale of Geringer, Colette and Milliman (2002). The
researchers conducted the study with 936 knowledge workers at an iron
ore mining company in South Africa. They achieved a 32% response rate.
The findings showed that most participants have relational contracts
with the organisation. Another 22% have balanced contracts, 8% have
transitional contracts whilst only 1% have transactional contracts. The
study suggests that there are relationships between these psychological
contracts and specific human resource practices. The study found that
training and development was the most important human resource practice
for developing relational and balanced contracts. Employees thought that
they contributed more than their employer did to the relationship. The
researchers developed a model to illustrate the influence of the various
human resource practices on psychological contracts.
The influence of human resource practices on relational contracts could
assist organisations to invest in human resource practices. During
recessions, organisations tend to reduce expenditure on human resource
practices, especially training and development. The findings of this
study, about the relationship between training and development and
relational contracts, highlight the negative effect that this trend
could have on psychological contracts, individual and organisational
behaviour and, ultimately, organisational performance.
Based on this empirical study, the researchers proposed a conceptual
model to illustrate the relationship between different psychological
contracts and specific human resource practices, like training and
development, which had the strongest relationships with relational
Scheepers, C. (2013). The coaching leaders’ programme: A facilitation and supervision guide. Johannesburg: Knowres Publishing.
Scheepers, C. B. (2012). Coaching leaders: 7 P tools to propel change. Randburg: Knowres Publishing.
Scheepers, C. (2014). Women in leadership. In Winning with people: Insight for leaders and organisations. Johannesburg: ESKOM.
Scheepers, C. & Oosthuizen, M. (in press). Strategic foresight for organizational agility: Nedbank area collaboration. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Collection.
Scheepers, C., & Oosthuizen, M. (in press.) Area collaboration at Nedbank: Cultivating culture through contextual leadership. Emerald Emerging Market Case collection.
Meyer, E., & Scheepers, C. (2017). Contextual leadership of a multi-partner approach to healthcare innovation. Emerald Emerging Market Case Studies.
Goh, J., Saville, A., & Scheepers, C. (2016). Preserving the delicate balance to manage a thriving business in South Africa: the adventure of OneLogix. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies.
Scheepers, C., & Kane, E. (2016). Nedbank: Coaching capabilities for growth strategy execution (Case no. 9B16C003). Ontario: Ivey Publishing.
Scheepers, C., & Mathu, K. (2016). Leading change towards sustainable green coal mining (Case no. EEMCS-01-2016-0007). Emerald Emerging Markets Case Collection.
Scheepers, C., & Mathu, K. (2016). Sibanye: Changing mindsets in mining through contextual leadership (Case no. 9B16C026). Ontario: Ivey Publishing.
Scheepers, C., & Sita, D. (2016). Allergan South Africa's merger: contextual leadership sustaining culture (Case no. 9B16C044). Ontario: Ivey Publishing.
Scheepers, C. (2015). Momentum and Metropolitan's merger: Authentic transformational leadership. (Case Study No. 9B15C004). Ontario: Ivey Publishing.
Scheepers, C., Jaffit, M., & Maphalala, J. (2015). Technology driven transformation at Comair Limited. (Case Study No. 9B15C003). Ontario: Ivey Publishing.
Scheepers, C., Maphalala, J., & Van der Westhuizen, C. (2014). Nedbank: Transformational leadership in sustainable turnaround. (Case Study No. 9B14C027). Ontario: Ivey Publishing.
Scheepers, C., & Marais, S. (2012). Construction the Medupi power station. (Case Study No. 9B12C015). Ontario: Ivey Publishing.
Scheepers, C., & Meyer, E. (2017, March). Leveraging complexity leadership to improve the
health and wellbeing of the poor and marginalised. Paper
presented at the Alfred Luthuli Conference on Responsible Leadership, GIBS, Johannesburg.
Scheepers, C. (2012). Africa leads. Paper presented the Medupi Responsible Leadership Conference, Lephalale.
Scheepers, C. (2011). Coaching and mentoring. Paper presented at the Knowledge Resources Conference, Johannesburg and Cape Town.
Scheepers, C. (2009). African animal analogies for leadership coaching. Paper presented at the Center for Creative Leadership Conference, Brussels.